How Do Electric Motors Work?

Electric motors are designed to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy and that is in turn used to run machines, power vehicles and home appliances. There are many electrical motors out there, they work on the same principal with distinctions made between the different sources of energy, the type of motion, their internal construction and lastly their application. One of the outstanding distinction between the different types of electric motors, the brushes and slip rings. We have brushed motor types and brush less motors. These two features form a power connection channel through which electricity or data is transferred between the static and moving parts of an electric motor.

The brushed motors usually include a wound rotor that is also referred to as an armature, it also contains a split ring commutator and a permanent or wound magnet stator. The winding rotor is fed electricity through the commutor and its accompanying brushes. This way the rotor core gets temporally magnetized and moves towards a specified direction. As the core rotor turns the commutor switches power, this ensures that the magnetic of the static field does not come to align with those of the rotating rotor. This continuous repulsion of magnetic poles is what keeps the rotor rotating.

The brushless motors work in the same way but are designed to do away with problems that arise from the brushed design. So instead of having a commutor with slip ring brushes, this motor runs on an external electronic switch synchronized with the rotor’s position.

From what we have observed above we can conclude that all electric motors are all about magnets, they rely on different principles of magnetism to change electric energy into physical mechanical motion. Take for example a simple toy magnet. There are two opposites which can attract and repel. So, if there is one end which is labelled ‘north’ and the other ‘south,’ then the north will attract the south. The north end will repel another north end, and the south end will also repel the other south end. This is exactly the same principle inside the motor. There are a continuous attraction and repelling forces which will create a rotation motion.

Inside a small or large electric motor are two small permanent magnets inside of a casing, two brushes which are housed and a winding wire around metal laminations or shafts with winding wire wound on them, this is known as the armature or the rotor. There are three poles to the rotor which causes it to move better. If there are two poles the electromagnet is the balancing point and between the two poles is a field magnet. For three poles the motor can start turning from any point.

There are motors with a varying number of poles but this really depends on the size of the motor and how it is being used. The three pole motors are the most preferred. Each time the commentator a switch that will reverse the direction of the current between the rotor and the external circuit changes the direction of the field in a two-pole type motor, it will short out the battery for a little bit. This will waste the battery and drain it of its power. The three poles will fix this problem for it will only shift the direction when the repulsion is at its strongest point.

If you need slip rings for sale, contact Moflon Technology.


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