What is selenium WebDriver and how it works?- Selenium Online Training

Selenium WebDriver Architecture

In this post, we see Selenium WebDriver Architecture in detail. The architecture of Selenium WebDriver is all about how Selenium works internally. We know Selenium is a browser automation tool that interacts with the browser and automates end-to-end tests of a web application.

Selenium IDE:

Selenium IDE (Integrated Development Environment) is a Firefox plugin. It is the simplest framework in the Selenium Suite. It allows us to record and playback the scripts. Even though we can create scripts using Selenium IDE, we need to use Selenium RC or Selenium Webdriver to write more advanced and robust test cases

Selenium RC:

Selenium RC AKA Selenium 1. Selenium RC was the main Selenium project for a long time before the WebDriver merge brought up Selenium 2. Selenium 1 is still actively supported (in maintenance mode). It relies on JavaScript for automation. It supports Java, Javascript, Ruby, PHP, Python, Perl, and C#. It supports almost every browser out there.

Note: Selenium RC is officially deprecated.

Selenium Webdriver:

Selenium WebDriver is a browser automation framework that accepts commands and sends them to a browser. It is implemented through a browser-specific driver. It controls the browser by directly communicating with it. Selenium WebDriver supports Java, C#, PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby.

Operation System Support – Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Solaris

Selenium Grid:

Selenium Grid is a tool used together with Selenium RC to run tests on different machines against different browsers in parallel. That is, running multiple tests at the same time against different machines running different browsers and operating systems.

Selenium WebDriver is a well-designed object-oriented API that supports many languages such as Java, C#, Python etc. Let’s see what is API and then we move on to know the complete picture of Selenium WebDriver Architecture.


Application Programming Interface (API) works as an interface between various software components.

Selenium WebDriver API:

Selenium Webdriver API helps in communication between languages and browsers. Selenium supports many programming languages such as Java, C#, Python, etc., and also it supports multiple browsers such as Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, etc.,

Every browser has different logic of performing actions like loading a page, closing the browser, etc.

There are four components of Selenium Architecture:

  1. Selenium Client Library
  2. JSON Wire Protocol over HTTP
  3. Browser Drivers
  4. Browsers

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About Selenium:

SELENIUM is a free (open-source) automated testing framework used to validate web applications across different browsers and platforms. You can use multiple programming languages like Java, C#, Python, etc to create Selenium Test Scripts. Testing done using the Selenium tool is usually referred to as Selenium Testing. Selenium is basically used to automate the testing across various web browsers. It supports various browsers like Chrome, Mozilla, Firefox, Safari, and IE, and you can very easily automate browser testing across these browsers using Selenium WebDriver.

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