Therapeutic Concepts Significant For Human Nutrition

Therapeutic Concepts Significant For Human Nutrition 

In the realm of human nutrition, therapeutic concepts play a crucial role in promoting optimal health and preventing chronic diseases. These principles, ranging from personalized nutrition to mindful eating, provide a comprehensive approach to dietary interventions. By understanding and applying these concepts, individuals can achieve better health outcomes and enhance their overall well-being.

The concepts playing a significant role are circadian rhythm, nutrigenomics, immunity, ORAC values of foodstuffs especially during the Covid pandemic gained importance, FODMAP, pre and probiotics, etc. A holistic approach and understanding is needed to reach a nutritional diagnosis for better outcomes.

1. Circadian Rhythm

Circadian Rhythm is a natural internal process that regulates the sleep-wake cycle & repeats roughly every 24 hours. It is an important regulator of a wide area of physiological functions like metabolism, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, hormone and enzyme secretion, digestive system, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune system, cardiovascular health, and renal function.

Circadian rhythm is important for cardiovascular and brain health. Hypertension, obesity, and diabetes are associated with lifestyle and genetic factors.

2. Nutrigenomics

It is an integrated approach to nutrition science and genetics. It can help to give personalized or designer nutrition as per the genetic makeup, susceptibility, or risk of an individual to various diseases like arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, cancer, asthma, PCOS, infertility, Inflammation, and bone health. gluten and lactose intolerance. various nutrients affect and regulate gene expression such as amino acids, and fatty acids eg. omega 3, glucose, vitamins-beta carotene, folates, B12, D, E, minerals -calcium, iron.

Nutrigenomics provides personalized gene-based diet and lifestyle modification

 3. Probiotics

Are microbial foods or supplements that can be used to change or re-establish the intestinal flora and improve the health of the host? they are live micro-organisms which when taken in prescribed dosage prove to be beneficial to the health of an individual by restoring gut flora, lactobacilli, and bifidobacterial in curd and yogurt, probiotic ice-creams, and cheese.

Non-digestible carbohydrate food products that stimulate the growth of symbiotic bacterial species already present in the colon, help to improve the health of the host.

Prebiotics help to reduce total cholesterol, LDL, and risk of cancer.

For example- onion, garlic, honey, and FOS(fructooligosaccharides).


ORAC stands for Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity. It is a method of measuring the antioxidant capacity of different foods and supplements.

Here’s a detailed look at ORAC

ORAC: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity

  1. Antioxidant Measurement -ORAC values help identify foods rich in antioxidants, which are crucial for combating oxidative stress and reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.
  2. Nutrient-rich food – Foods with high ORAC scores often contain vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients that contribute to overall health. These include fruits, vegetables, nuts, and spices.

Health Benefits

  • Reduced Inflammation: Antioxidant-rich foods can help reduce inflammation in the body.
  • Improved Immune Function: Antioxidants support the immune system by protecting cells from damage.
  • Slowed Aging Process: Antioxidants can slow the aging process by preventing cellular damage.

1. High ORAC foods are ginger, turmeric, cinnamon, coriander, clove, cumin seed, cardamom, and fresh oregano.

2. Vegetables like spinach, kale, red bell pepper, beet, corn, broccoli.

3. Fruits like berries-blue and black, strawberries, plums, amla, kiwi, grapes and oranges,nuts-almond, walnut, figs, and cocoa powder too have high ORAC value.

ORAC values are foods that have high antioxidant power and may slow aging as they protect cells from oxidative damage. Our body can effectively use 3000-5000 ORAC units per day. USDA and FD have recommended 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day which provide an approximate 3500 ORAC score.

5. FODMAP Diet

The FODMAP diet is designed to help people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other digestive issues. FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Mono-saccharides, and Polyols (FODMAP) are naturally present in food, they are short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and are prone to absorb water and ferment in the colon. which are types of carbohydrates that can be hard for some people to digest.

The FODMAP diet is a way of eating that limits certain types of carbs that can cause digestive problems. These carbs are found in a variety of foods, and they can lead to symptoms like bloating, gas, stomach pain, and diarrhea in some people.

High-FODMAP Foods to Avoid & Low-FODMAP Alternatives

High-FODMAP Foods to Avoid

Low-FODMAP Alternatives



Apples Bananas
Apricots Grapes
Pears Blueberries
Mangoes Oranges








Onions Carrots
Garlic Spinach
Cauliflower Zucchini

Capsicum green

sweet corn



Bell peppers fenugreek









Milk Lactose-free milk
Yogurt Hard cheeses
Soft cheese


Lactose-free yogurt

Soya milk

Almond milk






Wheat products (bread, pasta)




cookies Quinoa
  Gluten-free bread




High-fructose corn syrup Maple syrup
Honey Stevia


6. Immunity Booster

Certain macro and micronutrients boost our immune system thereby protecting us

Certain macro and micronutrients boost our immune system thereby protecting us against diseases. These foods have gained importance during the COVID-19 times.

Macronutrients and Micronutrients for Immune Support


Role in Immune System

Booster Foods



Supports immune cell production and function Lean meats, poultry, fish, legumes, tofu


Provide energy for immune cell activity Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes
Healthy Fats Anti-inflammatory properties, support immune response Avocado, nuts, seeds, olive oil, fatty fish

Vitamin C

Enhances immune cell function, and antioxidant properties Modulates immune Citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers

Fatty fish, fortified

Vitamin D

Modulates immune response, anti-inflammatory properties Fatty fish, fortified milk, sunlight exposure

Vitamin E

Antioxidant supports immune cell function Almonds, sunflower seeds, spinach, avocados

Vitamin A

Maintains mucosal barriers, supports immune cell function Carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach, kale


Essential for immune cell development and communication Shellfish, meat, legumes, nuts, seeds


Supports immune cell proliferation and maturation Red meat, poultry, beans, spinach, lentils


Antioxidant helps prevent cellular damage Brazil nuts, seafood, eggs, sunflower seeds

B9) Folate (Vitamin)

Supports the production of new immune cells Leafy greens, legumes, avocados, fortified grains

Vitamin B6

Supports biochemical reactions in the immune system Chickpeas, fatty fish, potatoes, bananas
Copper Helps maintain immune cell function Shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole grains
Magnesium Supports immune response and reduces inflammation Nuts, seeds, whole grains, leafy greens
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Anti-inflammatory properties support immune function Fatty fish, flaxseeds, walnuts, chia seeds

These nutrients play vital roles in supporting the immune system and can be obtained from a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and healthy fats.







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