Umar Ibn Khattab (RA) was the second caliph of Islam. After the demise of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), the first caliph of Islam was appointed to Abu Bakar (RA) from the opinion of all companions (Sahaba). Abu Bakar (RA) governed the state of Madinah on the right Sunnah of Prophet (SAW), however, he held reforms as needed. Similarly, running the state of two years, when Abu Bakar (RA) was near the death he called Sahaba and in order to select the next caliph.
So, they held a meeting in a Saqeefah Garden for next caliph. Saqeefah Garden was the typical place where special meeting regarding selecting the caliph of Madinah was held. The spot is opulently visited from those people who come for umrah through umrah package November at the cheapest rate. It is located near the Masjid Nabvi. Thus, when Sahaba could not find any conclusion for next caliph, they returned to Abu Bakar (RA) to announce the next one. So, Abu Bakar (RA) announced the name of Umar (RA) for the next caliph of Madinah.
After the demise of Abu Bakar (RA) Umar (RA) was appointed as the second caliph of Madinah. In the starting people were confused due to the harshness of Umar (RA) but soon they came to know that Umar (RA) would be proved the best one. No doubt, Umar (RA) was the strict ruler but not on them who were faultless. All the people were equal before him even his own son was punished proving the charge of guilty.
Since there was dire need to expand the empire in order to its establishment, so he introduced several reforms which proved the incredible ones. He took several initiatives in this regard, however, few are the following:
Extension of Masjid e Nabvi
As the strength of Muslims was being increased so definitely space was decreased. So, Umar (RA) expanded Masjid Nabvi and all the dwelled of Prophet’s family who left behind included the part of the Mosque. However, the mark was prominent to recall the dwellings of great Islamic figures.
Umar (RA) held the military expansion against the opposing forces which proved the strong power of Islam. History reports that military conquered the areas such as Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan, Eastern Anatolia, Persian Empire, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Caucasus, and Roman Egypt.
Umar (RA) lived in a simple dwelling to get to know the condition of the poor. He wandered with an assistant in the street of Madinah during the night. To give relief to the poor, Umar (RA) established Bait-ul-Maal to eliminate poverty. And for that purpose, he fixed the taxes from those who were financially capable to pay in the treasury of State. Soon, the level of poverty balanced and there was no deserving for Zakat. Reforms are still experiencing in Madinah by home and away travel umrah from several people.
The planning of his assassination was operating a long time and finally, on 31st October 644 CE, Piruz attacked Umar (RA) during the Fajar Salah (prayer). However, the wound was so serious that caused the death of Umar (RA) on 3 November 644. But, this was the Umar (RA) who introduced several beneficial reforms which make the people and state of Madinah prosper. In the recent era, Umar (RA) was considered high rank just.